Baghdad in Ruins : A US-made Hell on Earth

WW~Notes: It’s been some time since I reported any news out of Iraq after the nearly 20 year devastation of that country by the Americans.  I know now that I have been affected deeply by the destruction, death, suicides, unnecessary murders of women and children both in Iraq and Palestine over the years since I began this blog.   I suffer from a profound depression because I live in the very nation perpetrating these horrible atrocities against innocent human beings.  I’ve mourned for every murdered child and their mothers because I know how I would feel if the same thing happened to my own child or now, my grandchildren who are under the age of 10.  How these desperate  people move on I have not a clue.  I feel like I would disintegrate into a puddle of death over the loss of my loved ones.  Their indomitable spirit should be a lesson to every American because our day is coming.  Not at the hands of the faux enemy but our own government.  The American government will be held accountable one day but that will be long  after they’ve murdered us.  It’s blood for blood and they will be called to account for their crimes against humanity by a much higher power than can be found on this ball of rock.  

Darkmoon has another poignant article about the devastation that still hangs over Baghdad and its people.


By Cathy Breen

Cathy Breen lived in Baghdad and saw all this happen,
with children dying all round her like flies.



Two days ago an email came from an Iraqi doctor in Baghdad in response to a brief greeting I sent for the month of Ramadan.

“Thanks so much for remembering us…In fact we are the same if not worse.  Our hearts are broken at the organized ruining of our country.  We are targeted by those criminals and gangs coming from everywhere, even from the west who are all witnessing this drama and, if not supporting it, are keeping silent.  We wonder what sin we committed to face this gloomy black fate.  In fact, what is going on is beyond words. “


The courageous woman doctor I mentioned above never left the side of gravely ill children despite the great exodus of doctors due to kidnappings, assassinations and threats to their lives and families.  Sadly she reports that another of her siblings has cancer, and she needs to leave the medical students for some days.  This happens she says regretfully in “the critical time of final exams.”   She herself is a cancer survivor and both her mother and sister had cancer.   They have no choice, she says, but to go on and try to survive.

Another long-time friend is working in southern Iraq in a job that will soon end.  He is away from his family in Baghdad, and it is dangerous for him in the south, but he has no choice with a wife and seven children to support.  There was already an assassination attempt on his life in Baghdad and houses near their own have been bombed.  There are nightly explosions and gunfire, assassinations and kidnappings.   Approximately 200 people across Iraq have been killed each day in this month alone.

We have been frantically trying to find a safe place for him and his family to escape to.  If they could go to Kurdistan they would join the ranks of the already three million IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) within Iraq.  If they could get to Turkey, they might eventually get refugee status.  But it is expensive there, they don’t speak the language, are not allowed to work and resettlement could take years.  Our friend emailed that his wife decided to send their second oldest son, 16 years, to her mother’s house due to kidnapping cases.

“Two kids were kidnapped two days ago.”   Ali, I will call the son, has exams and his grandmother’s house is closer to the school.  When I stayed with this family for two weeks in 2013, one of Ali’s twelve year old friends was kidnapped and was never found.


(See here)

The grandmother takes her grandson each day to school and sits against a wall under its shadow until Ali finishes his exam. She is “old and weak,” Ali’s father writes, “and honestly it is meaningless to think she could protect Ali as she can’t really protect herself.  But I do appreciate her efforts.”

Ali told his dad that his grandmother was causing him “too much embarrassment as she doesn’t understand the rules of the exams.”  She always tries to enter the exam class to give Ali cold water because it is very hot.  The first day the director of the exam allowed her to do this, but another day during the exam she tried again.  This time it was not to give him water.  She had cooked a rooster and told the staff that he had to eat well to do good on the exam!

Ali was a little bit angry but his love for her “let him forget the embarrassing feeling!”  He is “crazy in love” with his grandmother as she is the only grandparent left.

Ali was complaining to his father about the insufferable heat and lack of air cooling system, as well as the terrible mosquitoes.  He uses a kerosene lamp for studying at night.    The father was trying to encourage him by phone to overcome the difficulties saying: No pain, no gain.

Ali responded “Dad, since we opened our eyes in this life, we have only known pain.”

Just yesterday two civilians were killed as Ali and his grandmother approached the school.  This happened right in front of their eyes.   His father emailed: “Ali couldn’t answer exam well as he saw the accident.  Let us pray for his safety.”

Our friend and his wife worry excessively about their oldest boy, 18 years, as militia come to the houses seeking young men to fight ISIS, and they “will take young guys by force to do battle.”  Although this son is needed to guard the house at night and help his mother, the mother felt compelled to send this son away too.

My friend concluded:  “Cathy, It’s hard to sleep. Don’t worry. The family is still fine.”





2 thoughts on “Baghdad in Ruins : A US-made Hell on Earth

    Antony C. Sutton

    by Antony C. Sutton

    Antony C. Sutton

    Foreword by
    Gary North, Ph.D.
    Dedicated to the memory of those who died in Korea and Vietnam – victims of our
    own technology and greed.

    “This business of lending blood money is one of the most thoroughly sordid, cold blooded, and criminal that was ever carried on, to any considerable extent, amongst human beings. It is like lending money to slave traders, or to common robbers and pirates, to be repaid out of their plunder. And the man who loans money to governments, so called, for the purpose of enabling the latter to rob, enslave and murder their people, are among the greatest villains that the world has ever seen”.

    LYSANDER SPOONER, No Treason (Boston, 1870)
    by David Keen

    by John Pilger



    by Jon Ronson.

    I had to go to Google to check out the characters in this book. I thought it was a Harry Potter book at first, but its all about groups like C Company 9th PsyOPs Battalion H-3743 and what these f–kers were/are doing to Iraqi prisoners.

    Google: General Stubblebine. He thought it was Muslim terrorists did 911, un til he researched it. Now he knows his Government murdered 3,000 Americans on 911 and thousands more from the asbestosis from the Twin Towers.

    President Reagan’s chief of staff Donald Regan wrote in his memoirs that

    “virtually every major move and decision the Reagans made during my time as White House chief of staff was cleared in advance with a woman in San Francisco who drew up horoscopes to make certain that the planets were in favorable alignment for the enterprise.”

    This woman, whose name was Joan Quigley, fixed the exact time that the president would sign the Intermediate Nuclear Forces treaty in 1987.

    With these books you will understand what is really going on in the world. Professor Sutton’s books can be read online!

    The Greatest Open Secret
    On December 17, 2014, the Obama administration rescinded the “trade embargo” on Cuba. Many jumped to the conclusion that Cuba was the last front of Washington’s battle against socialism and Marxism. Nothing can be further from the truth. The West built socialism, not only in the early stages but throughout the Soviet period. (Cuba was exceptional, owing mostly to its geography.)
    Bolshevik and early Soviet leaders were open about their desire to bring Russia up to speed with the industrialized West and their willingness to collaborate with European and American firms. In turn, Western capitalists envisioned the Revolution and development of Socialism as an opportunity for Russia to enter the global market. Jacob Schiff—of Kuhn Loeb and Company and the founder of the American Jewish Committee—is probably the most notorious Western capitalist who financed Socialism. According to his grandson, Schiff donated some $20 million to Trotsky to finance world revolution, which would amount to a quarter of a billion in today’s dollars.[1] While Schiff was eager to overthrow regimes (such as Tsarist Russia) that he viewed as threats to the Jewish people worldwide, other American capitalist saw Bolshevik Russia as an investment opportunity.

    A key to understanding this relationship between Big Business and Communism is the Congressional Overmann Commission of 1919, a document that is universally ignored by standard texts on the Cold War. The Overmann Commission was called, in large part, to gauge the opinions of American capitalists regarding the USSR. The consensus was that it was quite positive.

    One who testified was Roger Simmons, from Hagarstown, Maryland, who was in a Commerce Department Mission in the USSR as Trade Commissioner with the Red State. He was there for 11 months in the transitional period. His entire purpose was to help build the Soviet Union through grants and raw materials from the U.S. He attended a huge business consortium taking place in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where about 800 businessmen were deciding how best to begin investing in the USSR. He spoke of their “misinformed” admiration for the Soviet Union and the potential for profit there. [2]
    George A. Simons, the head of the Methodist Mission to Petrograd, noted, “I have a firm conviction that this thing is Yiddish, and one of its bases is in Brooklyn, NY” [3]. (It’s worth noting that Simons said this even though he publicly disavowed anti-Semitism.)

    Raymond Robbins, who was part of the Red Cross in Petrograd and elsewhere from 1917-1918, described the work of William Thompson, a wealthy banker negotiating loans for the Soviet government, who used the Petrograd branch of the National City Bank to funnel about 12,000,000 rubles to the revolutionaries (not merely the Bolsheviks), which was, in 1918, about $1 million. Moreover, he was speaking to the Red Cross about coordinating an infrastructure for an entire set of new newspapers supporting the revolutionaries.

    What becomes clear in the testimony is that even the most motivated Americans had no idea who was who. There was a sense that there were leftist “revolutionaries,” and that’s where the bulk of foreign money went. The Red Cross was granted about $3 million monthly, from both private and state sources in America, to “interpret the revolutionary groups to the army and to peasant villages of how absolutely indispensable to save the revolution to keep the front and defeat the German militarist autocracy.”[4]
    This dirty secret of western economics is rarely mentioned, let alone analyzed, by major historians. One of the few is TW Luke writes, who studied Soviet technology.

    The Bolsheviks stressed to Soviet workers, managers, and intellectuals the centrality of industry over agriculture in the NEP of 1921. Trotsky notes, ‘We [the Soviet Union] are in a process of becoming a part, a very particular part, but nonetheless an integral part of the world market . . . Foreign capital must be mobilized for those sectors of [Soviet] industry that are most backward.’ . . . These technological imports were to be limited because the Bolsheviks recognized the dangers of dependencies on the core, especially technological dependence. For example, resolutions of the 14th Party Congress in 1925 stressed the ‘whole series of new dangers’ in Western trade and advocated domestic technical development to prevent the USSR from becoming, in Parrot’s words, ‘an appendage of the capitalist world-economy’. Still, as Sutton notes ‘the penetration of early Soviet industry was remarkable, Western technical directions, consulting engineers and independent entrepreneurs were common in the Soviet Union.’ Even so, throughout the 1920s the Soviet state tightly regulated foreign access to suit its technological needs.[5]

    Not only did the U.S. and Western Europe build the USSR, but did so as their own populations were struggling. The West was so involved in the development of the USSR that the 14th Party Congress, mentioned above, was concerned about the loss of Soviet independence.

    Luke continues,
    The impact of imported technologies differed from industry to industry and from region to region. In the oil industry, for example, they were vital. Petroleum exports in 1926-1927 doubled 1913 exports. Alone, they provided 20 percent of Soviet foreign exchange earnings: ‘the importation of foreign oil-field technology and administration, either directly or by concession, was the single factor of consequence in this development (Sutton, 1968:43). While the overall imports of expertise and technology dropped in value from the 1893-1913 levels, the Bolsheviks’ bureaucratically planned economy stressed the need for post-1918 imports to be directed toward cost-efficient and economically necessary production to fit the planned industrial program of the regime. [6]

    In no other war (“cold” or otherwise) did combatants feverishly invest in building up their opponent.
    Had the West not subsidized the USSR, Communism would likely not have survived. Stalin himself admitted that two-thirds of early Soviet industrial products and development were of American origin.[7] Trade and aid to the USSR were constant and often included the most advanced technology available. There were no meaningful sanctions on the USSR throughout most of its history. Hence, the Cuban embargo or the Vietnam War had little to do with Marxism or the USSR. The fact is that the infrastructure of Castro and Ho Chi Minh was largely produced in the US.

    The propulsion systems for much of the Soviet Navy and, significantly, at Haiphong Harbor were from American firms. Nixon and Johnson actively went out of their way to stop any move to stifle trade with the USSR, even in the midst of the Vietnam War. The Gorki Truck plant was shipping hundreds of vehicles a month to North Vietnam, with the full blessing of the State Department. It was, of course, a Ford Motors plant, and it was largely staffed by Americans. Henry Ford created the Soviet automotive industry, especially in the development of trucks. His Gorki plant was also making rockets and other military equipment for the USSR, without comment from Washington. Soviet rockets were fired on Ford GAZ-69 chassis.[8]

    In 1968, Fiat motors created the world’s largest automotive plant in the world at Volgograd. ZIL was created by New Britain Machine Company. In 1972, Nixon personally approved the Kama truck plant deal, the creation of an automotive and trucking plant manufacturing 100,000 vehicles per year, which at the time was more than all U.S. automakers combined. The plant itself came to occupy 36 square miles, every inch created by the U.S.[9]

    In Korea, the North Korean Army and China were using trucks made by Ford and tractors by Caterpillar. Soviet fighters were equipped with Rolls Royce engines sent to Stalin by the British automaker. As Anthony Sutton explains, it was the elite, including Maurice Stans, Peter G. Peterson, Peter Flanigan, Averell Harriman, and Robert McNamara, that created the infrastructure for constant and lucrative trade with the “enemy.”[10] The Ural Steel complex that served as the heart of Soviet industrialization was “100% American.” The McKee Corporation built the world’s largest steel and iron plant in the world in the USSR:

    Organization methods and most of the machinery are either German or American. The steel mill “Morning” near Moscow, is said to be one of the most modern establishments of its kind in the world. Constructed, organized and started by highly paid American specialists, it employs 17,000 workers and produces steel used by motor plants, naval shipyards and arms factories. [11]

    The 1932 KHEMZ plant in eastern Ukraine was created by GE, and was 250 percent larger than anything GE had in the U.S.

    Anthony Sutton writes:
    Major new units built from 1936 to 1940 were again planned and constructed by Western companies. Petroleum-cracking, particularly for aviation gasoline, as well as all the refineries in the Second Baku and elsewhere were built by Universal Oil Products, Badger Corporation, Lummus Company, Petroleum Engineering Corporation, Alco Products, McKee Corporation, and Kellogg Company.[12]

    The Federal Reserve Bank of New York sent $1 billion in aid to Trotsky and the Red Army.[13] The First Five year plan had all of its military equipment built by American firms. Sergei Nemetz of Stone and Webber, along with Zara Witkin, supervised most of the military construction for the first two Five-Year Plans, using American capital desperately needed at home. Carp Exports, based in New York City, supplied the Soviet Union with all its high-tech military parts. Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut built the Soviet submarine fleet with express permission of the State Department in 1939. Skoda Armaments of Czechoslovakia was a subsidiary of the Simmons Machine Tool Corporation of Albany, New York. Ball bearings were built in the USSR by Bryant Chucking Grinder Company of Springfield, Vermont.

    All told, 90 percent of all Soviet industry was created in the U.S. or Western Europe.
    What such a history reveals is that capital does not require markets in order to be profitable. The Western financial elite saw the Soviet system as a perfected version of itself: a totally centralized economy run by experts from one source. Capital looked upon Gosplan—the USSR’s central planning committee—with envy; and it was so similar in its powers to the small group of financial conglomerates that governs the U.S. economy in 2015. The Gosplan board approved investments, set targets, measured economic growth, dictated the amount of money in circulation, manipulated statistics—down to the last detail. This system is little different, institutionally or ideologically, from the American financial elite and the Federal Reserve Board, which organizing the American economy, with remarkable freedom from markets and the influence of politicians.

    Once one rejects the formulaic division of the world into “Soviet” and “American” camps, all of 20th-century history appears differently.

    One of the most telling quotations is from a Russian-language work, The Political History of the Russian Emigration, written by SA Alexander:

    Despite the growing popularity of the right wing in the émigré environment, it is only the leftists that found a response in Western governments. Most significantly, the leftists in exile were feted by the financial and industrial sector interested in trade with the Soviet Union. The “All Emigre Russian Unity” conference was called at the behest of American capital, and the Soviet financial elite were invited. Conferences subsequent to this were called by capital in Cannes, Genoa, The Hague and Lausanne.[14]

    Apparently, U.S. capitalists rarely feared Soviet advances.

    As an ally of the victorious capitalist core powers, the USSR gained many unexpected technological windfalls in the aftermath of World War II. New technical inputs in weaponry, electronics, nuclear power, aircraft, and chemicals were expropriated from Germany and other Axis powers from 1945 to 1950. Allied Lend-Lease equipment, especially heavy bombers and airplane engines, was also ‘reverse engineered’ from 1942 to 1953. The USSR dismantled and shipped home 25 percent of the industrial plants in the Western zones of Germany, along with additional industrial equipment constituting 65 percent of all motor vehicle production, 75 percent of all rubber tire capacity, and 40 percent of all paper and cardboard-producing capacity in eastern Germany.[15]

    This is extremely significant in that these patents were at least in part financed by American firms. They represent decades of research and millions of dollars in grants. Yet, Stalin brought them home without a peep from the West.


    Between 1965 and 1985, the Soviet Union, Cuba, Vietnam and the rest of the Soviet Bloc was given tremendous boosts by American firms. Alcoa built Soviet aluminum. American Chain and Cable created the machine-tool industry. Ingersoll Rand built much of the heavy-duty transport infrastructure (under Automatic Production Systems, a shell company). Betchell created the construction industry. Boeing was heavily invested in Soviet aviation, while, at the same time, building the bulk of the American Air Force. Dow Chemicals, DuPont, and Dresser industries were competing to see who would build the more advanced Soviet chemical plants. IBM helped create the modern computer industry, while Gulf General Atomic was helping put nuclear missiles together for the USSR.

    Much of this was made easier in the 1980s by the U.S.-USSR Trade and Economic Council, a pet project of then-Vice President George H.W. Bush and Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige. Just a partial list of members include Abbott Laboratories, Allen Bradley Gleason Corporation, Allied Analytical Systems, Ingersoll Rand, International Harvester, Kodak, American Express, Archer Daniels Midland, Armco Steel, Monsanto, Cargill, Occidental Petroleum, Caterpillar, Chase Manhattan, Pepsi Co., Chemical Bank, Phibro-Salomon, Coca Cola, Ralston, Continental Grain Seagram, Dow Chemical, and Union Carbide. All members of this Council had substantial investments in the “Soviet enemy” and, through their philanthropic organizations, created the “peace movement.”[16]

    In 1985, the San Jose Mercury News reported confirmation from State and Commerce Departments that “[t]he most sensitive, state-of-the-art semiconductor manufacturing equipment went to the Soviet Union after first being shipped to Switzerland.

    Creed [spokesman for Commerce] said the material shipped to Cuba, and additional equipment the Cubans were unable to obtain, would have given them the capability to produce semiconductors and integrated circuits. The report stated that such trade was “illegal.”[17]

    The State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR sealed a huge deal with Data Control in 1973. While openly denying it in public, Norris and the Department of Commerce squashed all inquiries into the investment and aid project. The Soviets stated that Data Control will “[b]uild a plant for manufacturing mass storage devices based on removable magnetic disk packs with up to 100 million byte capacity per each pack.”

    The brunt of the Soviet computer industry was created by American firms. In 1959, the Model-802 system was sold to the USSR from Elliot Automation ltd., an English firm. This was part of General Electric, one of the major offenders in this category. European branches of US firms were selling advanced computer equipment to the USSR at roughly $40 million per year.

    During the Vietnam War, giants such as Union Carbide, General Electric, Armco Steel, Bryant Chucking Grinder, and Control Data were just the wealthiest of American capitalists with regular deals in building Soviet industry. This was in 1973, and every bit of it was approved by Johnson and Nixon during the war.


    By the 1950s, the Soviets had educated enough of their own in Western methods of production such that they achieved a great deal of independence in most every sector of the economy. Regardless, the USSR was fed on a constant stream of food from American capitalists; American universities praised the USSR as a matter of course (or some form of socialism); and all major capitalists enterprises were invested in the USSR and satellite states. Both before and after Stalin’s Great Purges, the U.S. was contributing massively to the Soviet industrialization drive and the creation of its “experimental” economy. When the Cold War got hot, such as during the Vietnam conflict, Washington was never motivated by “anti-Communism” but the fear in the breasts of American business that if China and Russia were to combine forces, the U.S. might become superfluous.

    1. New York Journal—American, February 3, 1949.
    2. Overmann, Congressional Record, 294, 304; all pages come from the Report itself.
    3. Ibid., p. 112.
    4. Ibid., 777.
    5. Luke, TW (1983), “The Proletarian Ethic and Soviet Industrialization,” American Political Science Review 77 (3): 588-601, drawing from Antony Sutton, The Best Enemy Money Can Buy (Montana: Liberty House Press, 1986, Dauphin Publications, 1991),
    6. Ibid., 339-340, also drawing on Sutton.
    7. Chase-Dunn, C, “Socialist States in the Capitalist World Economy,” Social Problems 27(5), 1980: 505-525.
    8. See Sutton, The Best Enemy Money Can Buy.
    9. See Berliner, The Innovation Decision in Soviet Industry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976).
    10. All evidence from the State or Commerce Departments has not been declassified. Only through insistent demands have these documents been granted to the public. It is highly likely that the unclassified papers from 70 years ago are largely detailed agreements between American capital and the Soviet Union.
    11. U.S. State Dept. Decimal File, 861.5017, Living Conditions/456, Report No. 665, Helsingfors, April 2, 1932
    12. Sutton, Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development: 1945–1965, Chapter 4 (Stanford, CA: The Hoover Institution, 1973).
    13. Washington Post, Feb. 2, 1918.
    14. S. A. Aleksandrov, Politicheskaia istoriia zarubezhnoi Rossii,, translation by the author.
    15. Luke, “The Proletarian Ethic and Soviet Industrialization,” American Political Science Review 77 (3), 1983: 588-601.
    16. Erikson, 1991.
    17. There is no evidence that any law against such a practice existed. Even if it did, it would have made little difference, since the technology would have already been transferred.


    For those of you who want “FACTS” and “FIGURES” and have the intellect to judge ‘GOOD’ from ‘EVIL’ and the courage to know and say out the TRUTH, you should stop here!

    Ever since the United States Army massacred 300 Lakotas in 1890, American forces have intervened elsewhere around the globe 100 times. Indeed the United States has sent troops abroad or militarily struck other countries’ territory 216 times since independence from Britain. Since 1945 the United States has intervened in more than 20 countries throughout the world.

    Since World War II, the United States actually dropped BOMBS ON 23 COUNTRIES. These include: China 1945-46, Korea 1950-53, China 1950-53, Guatemala 1954, Indonesia 1958, Cuba 1959-60, Guatemala 1960, Congo 1964, Peru 1965, Laos 1964-73, Vietnam 1961-73, Cambodia 1969-70, Guatemala 1967-69, Grenada 1983, Lebanon 1984, Libya 1986, El Salvador 1980s, Nicaragua 1980s, Panama 1989, Iraq 1991-1999, Sudan 1998, Afghanistan 1998, and Yugoslavia 1999.

    Post World War II, the United States has also assisted in over 20 different coups throughout the world, and the CIA was responsible for half a dozen assassinations of political heads of state.

    The following is a comprehensive summary of the imperialist strategy of the United States over the span of the past century:

    Argentina-1890-Troops sent to Buenos Aires to protect business interests.

    Chile-1891- Marines sent to Chile and clashed with nationalist rebels.

    Haiti-1891-American troops suppress a revolt by Black workers on United States-claimed Navassa Island.

    Hawaii-1893-Navy sent to Hawaii to overthrow the independent kingdom-Hawaii annexed by the United States.

    Nicaragua-1894-Troops occupied Bluefields, a city on the Caribbean Sea, for a month.

    China-1894-95-Navy, Army, and Marines landed during the Sino-Japanese War.

    Korea-1894-96-Troops kept in Seoul during the war.

    Panama-1895-Army, Navy, and Marines landed in the port city of Corinto.

    China-1894-1900-Troops occupied China during the Boxer Rebellion.

    Philippines-1898-1910-Navy and Army troops landed after the Philippines fell during the Spanish-American War; 600,000 Filipinos were killed.
    Cuba-1898-1902-Troops seized Cuba in the Spanish-American War; the United States still maintains troops at Guantanamo Bay today.

    Puerto Rico-1898-present-Troops seized Puerto Rico in the Spanish-American War and still occupies Puerto Rico today.

    Nicaragua-1898-Marines landed at the port of San Juan del Sur.

    Samoa-1899-Troops landed as a result over the battle for succession to the throne.

    Panama-1901-14-Navy supported the revolution when Panama claimed independence from Colombia. American troops have occupied the Canal Zone since 1901 when construction for the canal began.

    Honduras-1903-Marines landed to intervene during a revolution.

    Dominican Rep-1903-04-Troops landed to protect American interests during a revolution.

    Korea-1904-05-Marines landed during the Russo-Japanese War.

    Cuba-1906-09-Troops landed during an election.

    Nicaragua-1907-Troops landed and a protectorate was set up.

    Honduras-1907-Marines landed during Honduras’ war with Nicaragua.

    Panama-1908-Marines sent in during Panama’s election.

    Nicaragua-1910-Marines landed for a second time in Bluefields and Corinto.

    Honduras-1911-Troops sent in to protect American interests during Honduras’ civil war.

    China-1911-41-Navy and troops sent to China during continuous flare-ups.

    Cuba-1912-Troops sent in to protect American interests in Havana.

    Panama-1912-Marines landed during Panama’s election.

    Honduras-1912-Troops sent in to protect American interests.

    Nicaragua-1912-33-Troops occupied Nicaragua and fought guerrillas during its 20-year civil war.

    Mexico-1913-Navy evacuated Americans during revolution.

    Dominican Rep-1914-Navy fought with rebels over Santo Domingo.

    Mexico-1914-18-Navy and troops sent in to intervene against nationalists.
    Haiti-1914-34-Troops occupied Haiti after a revolution and occupied Haiti for 19 years.

    Dominican Rep-1916-24-Marines occupied the Dominican Republic for eight years.

    Cuba-1917-33-Troops landed and occupied Cuba for 16 years; Cuba became an economic protectorate.

    World War I-1917-18-Navy and Army sent to Europe to fight the Axis powers.

    Russia-1918-22-Navy and troops sent to eastern Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution; Army made five landings.

    Honduras-1919-Marines sent during Honduras’ national elections.

    Guatemala-1920-Troops occupied Guatemala for two weeks during a union strike.

    Turkey-1922-Troops fought nationalists in Smyrna.

    China-1922-27-Navy and Army troops deployed during a nationalist revolt.

    Honduras-1924-25-Troops landed twice during a national election.

    Panama-1925-Troops sent in to put down a general strike.

    China-1927-34-Marines sent in and stationed for seven years throughout China.

    El Salvador-1932-Naval warships deployed during the FMLN revolt under Marti.

    World War II-1941-45-Military fought the Axis powers: Japan, Germany, and Italy.

    Yugoslavia-1946-Navy deployed off the coast of Yugoslavia in response to the downing of an American plane.

    Uruguay-1947-Bombers deployed as a show of military force.

    Greece-1947-49-United States operations insured a victory for the far right in national “elections.”

    Germany-1948-Military deployed in response to the Berlin blockade; the Berlin airlift lasts 444 days.

    Philippines-1948-54-The CIA directed a civil war against the Filipino Huk revolt.

    Puerto Rico-1950-Military helped crush an independence rebellion in Ponce.

    Korean War-1951-53-Military sent in during the war.

    Iran-1953-The CIA orchestrated the overthrow of democratically elected Mossadegh and restored the Shah to power.
    Vietnam-1954-The United States offered weapons to the French in the battle against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh.

    Guatemala-1954-The CIA overthrew the democratically elected Arbenz and placed Colonel Armas in power.

    Egypt-1956-Marines deployed to evacuate foreigners after Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal.

    Lebanon-1958-Navy supported an Army occupation of Lebanon during its civil war.

    Panama-1958-Troops landed after Panamanians demonstrations threatened the Canal Zone.

    Vietnam-1950s-75-Vietnam War.

    Cuba-1961-The CIA-directed Bay of Pigs invasions failed to overthrow the Castro government.

    Cuba-1962-The Navy quarantines Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    Laos-1962-Military occupied Laos during its civil war against the Pathet Lao guerrillas.

    Panama-1964-Troops sent in and Panamanians shot while protesting the United States presence in the Canal Zone.

    Indonesia-1965-The CIA orchestrated a military coup.

    Dominican Rep-1965-66-Troops deployed during a national election.

    Guatemala-1966-67-Green Berets sent in.

    Cambodia-1969-75-Military sent in after the Vietnam War expanded into Cambodia.

    Oman-1970-Marines landed to direct a possible invasion into Iran.

    Laos-1971-75-Americans carpet-bomb the countryside during Laos’ civil war.

    Chile-1973-The CIA orchestrated a coup, killing President Allende who had been popularly elected. The CIA helped to establish a military regime under General Pinochet.

    Cambodia-1975-Twenty-eight Americans killed in an effort to retrieve the crew of the Mayaquez, which had been seized.

    Angola-1976-92-The CIA backed South African rebels fighting against Marxist Angola.

    Iran-1980-Americans aborted a rescue attempt to liberate 52 hostages seized in the Teheran embassy.

    Libya-1981-American fighters shoot down two Libyan fighters.

    El Salvador-198-92-The CIA, troops, and advisers aid in El Salvador’s war against the FMLN.

    Nicaragua-1981-90-The CIA and NSC directed the Contra War against the Sandinistas.

    Lebanon-1982-84-Marines occupied Beirut during Lebanon’s civil war; 241 were killed in the American barracks and Reagan “redeployed” the troops to the Mediterranean.

    Honduras-1983-89-Troops sent in to build bases near the Honduran border.

    Grenada-1983-84-American invasion overthrew the Maurice Bishop government.

    Iran-1984-American fighters shot down two Iranian planes over the Persian Gulf.

    Libya-1986-American fighters hit targets in and around the capital city of Tripoli.

    Bolivia-1986-The Army assisted government troops on raids of cocaine areas.

    Iran-1987-88-The United States intervened on the side of Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War.

    Libya-1989-Navy shot down two more Libyan jets.

    Virgin Islands-1989-Troops landed during unrest among Virgin Island peoples.

    Philippines-1989-Air Force provided air cover for government during coup.

    Panama-1989-90-27,000 Americans landed in overthrow of President Noriega; over 2,000 Panama civilians were killed.

    Liberia-1990-Troops entered Liberia to evacuate foreigners during civil war.

    Saudi Arabia-1990-91-American troops sent to Saudi Arabia, which was a staging area in the war against Iraq.

    Kuwait-1991-Troops sent into Kuwait to turn back Saddam Hussein.

    Somalia-1992-94-Troops occupied Somalia during civil war.

    Bosnia-1993-95-Air Force jets bombed “no-fly zone” during civil war in Yugoslavia.

    Haiti-1994-96-American troops and Navy provided a blockade against Haiti’s military government. The CIA restored Aristide to power.
    Zaire-1996-97-Marines sent into Rwanda Hutus’ refugee camps in the area where the Congo revolution began.

    Albania-1997-Troops deployed during evacuation of foreigners.

    Sudan-1998-American missiles destroyed a pharmaceutical complex where alleged nerve gas components were manufactured.

    Afghanistan-1998-Missiles launched towards alleged Afghan terrorist training camps.

    Yugoslavia-1999-Bombings and missile attacks carried out by the United States in conjunction with NATO in the 11-week war against Milosevic.

    Iraq-1998-2001-Missiles launched into Baghdad and other large Iraq cities for four days. American jets enforced “no-fly zone” and continued to hit Iraqi targets since December 1998.

    These*100*instances of American military intervention did not include times when the United States:

    (1) Deployed military police overseas;

    (2) Mobilized the National Guard;

    (3) Sent Navy ships off the coast of numerous countries as a show of strength;

    (4) Sent additional troops to areas where Americans were already stationed;

    (5) Carried out covert actions where American forces were not under the direct rule of an American command;

    (6) Used small hostage rescue units;

    (7) Used American pilots to fly foreign planes;

    (8) Carried out military training and advisory programs, which did not involve direct combat.

    U. S. Government Assassination Plots

    Following is a list of prominent foreign leaders whose assassination (or planning for same) the United States has been involved in since the end of Second World War. The list does not include several assassinations in various parts of the world carried out by anti-Castro Cubans employed by CIA and headquartered in the United States:


    1949 – KIm Koo, Korean opposition leader

    1950’s – CIA/Neo-Nazi hit list of numerous political figures in West Germany
    1950’s Chou En-lai, Prime Minister of China, several attempts on his life

    1950s (mid) – Claro M. Recto, Philippines opposition leader

    1951 – Kim Il Sung, Premiere of North Korea

    1955 – Jose’ Antonio Remon, President of Panama

    1955 – Jawar Lal Nehru, Prime Minister of India

    1959 and 1963 – Norodom Sihanouk, leader of Cambodia

    1950s-70s – Jose Figueres, President of Costa Rica, two attempts on his life

    1961 – Francois “Papa Doc”Duvalier, leader of Haiti

    1961 – Patrice Lumumba , Prime Minister of Congo (Zaire)

    1961 – Gen. Rafael Trujillo, leader of Dominican Republic

    1963 – Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam

    1960s – Fidel Castro, President of Cuba, more than15 attempts on his life

    1960s – Raul Castro, high official in government of Cuba

    1965 – Francisco Caamanao, Dominican Republic opposition leader

    1965 – Pierre Ngendandumwe, Prime Minister of Burundi

    1965-6 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France

    1967 – Che Guevara, Cuban leader

    1970 – Salvadore Allende, President of Chile

    1970 – General Rene Schneider, Commander-in-Chief of Army, Chile

    1970s and 1981 – Gen. Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama

    1972 – General Manuel Noriega, Chief of Panama Intelligence

    1975 – Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire

    1976 – Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica

    1983 – Miguel d’Escoto, Foreign Minister of Nicaragua

    1984 – The nine commandantes of the Sandanista National Directorate

    1980’s – Dr. Gerald Bull, Canadian Ballistics Scientist assassinated by Mossad in Belgium.

    Partial List Of Muslim Leaders Assassinated Or Attempted Assassinations

    1950’s Sukarno, President of Indonesia

    1957 Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt

    1960 Brigadier General, Abdul Karim Kassem, Leader of Iraq

    1980-86 Muammar Qaddafi, Leader of Libya, several plots and attempts upon his life

    1982 Ayatullah Khomeini, Leader of Iran

    1983 General Ahmed Dlimi, Moroccan army Commander

    1985 Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadllallah, Lebanese Shiite Leader (80 people killed in that attempt)

    1991 Saddam Hussein, Leader of Iraq

    Reference: Blum, William, “KILLING HOPE – U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II,” Appendix III U.S. Government Assassination Plots, page 453, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine 1995. ISBN 1-56751-052-3 Very likely Victims :

    April 4, 1979 – Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Leader of Pakistan, for pursuing making of Nuclear Bomb.

    August, 1988. General Ziaul Haq, Military Leader of Pakistan.

    1995 – Murtaza Bhutto, Son of ZUlfiqar Ali Bhutto, Anti-American would-be Leader – Pakistan.

    March 25, 1975 – King Faisal of Saudi Arabia through his Nephew, Saudi Arabia for imposing 1973 Oil Embargo.

    August 24, 1999. Mullah Mohammad Omar, in Kandhar, Afghanistan.

    1950’s Sukarno, President of Indonesia

    1957 Gamal Abdul Nasser, President

    2001 40 Palestinian leaders assassinated through surrogate

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